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1 / 16 cave condition 洞穴條件


con-cave: bamiyan cultural centre | 共同的洞穴:巴米揚文化中心

Year | 年份: 2015
Location | 地點: Bamiyan, Afghanistan | 阿富汗,巴米揚市
Status | 狀態: competition | 競賽

Type | 類型: architecture | 建筑
Program | 功能: culture | 文化
Size | 規模: building 2,200 sqm, landscape 26,000 sqm | 建筑2,200平米,景觀26,000平米
Client | 業主: Unesco Kabul | 聯合國教科文組織

Team | 團隊: Chen Chen (陳忱), Federico Ruberto, Nicola Saladino, Zhao Wei (趙瑋)

 
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2 / 16 bird view 鳥瞰


Con-cave is a spatial intervention that shapes the steep terrain of the site playing with the infiltration of the light: gathering, concentrating and dissipating it through the earthy sinuosity of interconnected underground passageways and tunnels. The varying chiaroscuro embraces the spaces, highlighting the materiality of the terrain, the solidity, and the different levels of humidity of the concrete walls. The light, blooming locally, becomes a sublime wave investing the visitor and inundating the gaze with the history and the culture of the Afghan landscape. The building opens towards the outside with rooms and terraces only in specific locations, offering an intentional selection of belvedere and sublime points of view.

“共同的洞穴”坐落于遠望巴米揚大佛廢墟的高地上,它將當地社區的新生活滲入到原有的地貌中,由諸多嵌入陡坡的地下和半地下的巢穴和通道共同組織。一系列新與舊、明與暗,材料的粗糙與細膩的強烈對比,充滿這個新的文化中心場所。我們強調原有地形的特質:它的渾厚、堅實,而對當地材料混凝土的使用則強化了這種特殊的紀念性。在特定的角度和位置,室內外的視線和光線被連通起來,形成了一系列步移景異的序列。自然光在一些地方滲透進來,邀請來訪者沉浸在對阿富汗當地景觀的歷史與文化的凝視中。

 
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3 / 16 masterplan 總體規劃


The exploration of the cavities and tunnels shows the adherence of the volume to the natural conditions of the hill. Its topology is a modulation between naturalness and artificialness. It is not the stage of a na?ve hypocritical camouflage but it is instead a synthetic morphological and structural unity that emerges from the landscape. Such imperfect fusion results in a series of perceptible longitudinal cuts that consciously declare, at points, the presence of the artifact.
It is not a self-contained building but a piece of public and open infrastructure where the indoor spaces are reduced to the minimal programmatic requirements. Cutting the land, it connects the valley with the hilltop, forming a variety of open, protected and enclosed spaces: gathering areas for the everyday uses of the local community and the visitors.

一系列洞穴和隧道隨自然山勢而展開。建筑至此已經成為自然和人工的一種中間狀態,成為從景觀地貌中涌現的一種形態的、結構的有機整體。在這樣一種“不完美的擬態”中,人工與自然相互掩映,從西南到東北的一系列各異的地形剖面中可看到兩者交互產生的豐富變化。
這不是一座自成一體的建筑,而是室內功能、開放空間和公共基礎設施組成的綜合體,一部連貫的構筑物。在這里,室內空間被縮減到滿足功能需求的最小化。它們嵌入山體,用輕盈的步道連接山丘上下,并串聯了一系列性格、尺度不同、處于不同標高的,開放、半開放的空間:它們不僅允許參觀者經過有趣的空間序列參觀展覽、觀看演出、參與課程,也供附近的社區休息、聚集、玩耍,歡慶。

 
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4 / 16 floor plans 平面圖


The maze of connections emphasizes the isomorphism of the building with the topography of the site. Taking advantage of the existing hill, its slopes and caverns are placed in accordance to the morphology of the terrain and its structural resistance. The built volumes result as a negotiation between the programmatic requirements, the autochthonous Afghan cave typologies, the regional climate, the lighting conditions, the selection of views, etc.

這些交錯相連的流線與掩映在地形起伏中的構筑物一同構成了一個整體。順應地段的原始地形,一系列坡道和洞穴被布置在朝向巴米揚大佛廢墟的坡地上,形成連續的觀景步道和開放畫廊,作為室內展覽區的室外延伸。整個構筑物的體形和建構是建筑功能需求和當地條件(阿富汗當地穴居類型,地區氣候,光照條件,朝向巴米揚大佛的視野等)相互作用與對話的結果。

 
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5 / 16 cave conditions 洞穴條件


Taking all the previous factors at its premise, the spatial configuration of the building generates its continuity and discontinuities by the hybridization of two typologies: the chamber and the tunnel. The chamber locally defines the program and controls the space; the tunnel allows the blend to happen, the intentional connection of several caves into one system. The morphological metamorphosis between the “singularities” of local conditions is assessed and defined at each point, resulting in an “imperfect continuity”. This almost seamless interconnectedness, the transition between the specificity of several places is not a simple merging operation but an act of decision, a play made of a continuous lighting and spatial modulation, protrusion, invasions and interruptions.

在空間序列上,“洞穴”和“隧道”組織了這個充滿連續與突變的綜合體。形態、尺度、明暗各異的“洞穴”承載室內的各個功能空間,而“隧道”則允許“融合”的發生,讓看似獨立的各個功能空間串聯成一個連貫的系統。從西南到東北,不同剖面形態適應場地上不同地點的光照、視野、空間等需求,而這個空間序列中各剖面間的相互轉接,時而平滑,時而突變,制造了一種戲劇性的起承轉合,而充滿動態和趣味。

 
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6 / 16 corridor and entrances view 走廊及入口


The “Cave”
Starting from the study of local inhabited caves, we developed a morphology that engages with the views and dramatic lighting effects, where the program and the circulation merge and the building marks a new edge condition on the topography.
“Lofting” different sections results in a continuous sequence of unique spatial experiences: in the exhibition area in the Southern end the “cave” collects and reflects indirect natural light through a gap in the top, while in the outdoor open gallery in the central segment the “cave” frames the view s towards the Buddhas at specific angles and heights (in this case the gap is on the side, facing North-West)
Such unique morphology creates an interesting and ambiguous relationship between indoor and outdoor spaces and provides numerous shaded areas for outdoor activities.

“洞穴”
設計的初始則在關注當地穴居的特殊空間類型,通過研究不同穴居類型的剖面條件及其具有的不同功能屬性(采光,視野,交通等),我們探索如何通過剖面來組織在場地對室內空間的引入和景觀地形的重塑。
“轉接”將不同的“洞穴”剖面通過過渡而形成一個連貫多變的空間整體:從南側展覽區的高窗折射頂部陽光而形成柔和光環境的“采光器”,到中部開放畫廊朝向西北大佛方向的“景框”,再到北側與樓梯結合的“坡道”,不同的“洞穴”剖面在每個不同的功能區域塑造著獨特各異的空間氣氛與體驗。
整個構筑物繼承巴米揚民居的傳統并回應當地的特殊氣候特征,室內外空間不斷交互流動,其界限時而模糊時而消解,并提供了大量陰涼的灰空間。

 
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7 / 16 sections and passage ways views 剖面及走廊


Landscape / outdoor spaces
There is no clear differentiation between the building and the surrounding landscape as the two interweave in an integrated system, taking advantage from each other. The building structure reinforces the steep slopes of the hill and the new built volume creates a terracing system that provides a diversity of multi-functional public outdoor activities for the community: movie projections, theatre and social gatherings, sports, market, community farming.
The volume of the building is inserted into the terrain respecting as much as possible its original conditions and the earthwork needed for its construction is the result of a cut and fill balance. The building also works as a rain collector to provide irrigation water during the dry season. The local ecology and biodiversity are strengthened by the implantation of local species that also help stabilize the terrain.

景觀與開放空間
建筑與景觀的概念在這里不再清晰,兩者互為借用彼此融合。在一些地形陡峭的區域,建筑結構同時作為景觀的擋土墻;室內空間的體量塑造了一系列高低錯落的景觀臺地,并為當地社區提供了豐富的多功能室外活動設施:室外觀影、露天劇場、聚會、運動、市場、都市農田等。
建筑的體量盡量嵌入原有地形以最小化其對聯合國遺產區景觀的消極影響。對地形的塑造尊重原始地貌并維持填挖平衡。建筑的體量兼顧雨水收集以備旱季景觀灌溉使用。對當地植物的使用在強化生態多樣性的同時,試圖用最經濟、低維護的方式穩固土壤,防止水土流失。

 
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8 / 16 circulation and topography 流線及地形


Program / Circulation
A series of outdoor and indoor ramps generates a continuous loop allowing easy accessibility to the entire program. The gates and the routes are designed in a way that outdoor spaces, public and private programs and can be managed separately to allow different operational times.
The lower level (elevation: 2545.00m) facing the best views towards North-West hosts the public programs: reception, exhibition and performance. The upper level (elevation: 2555.50m) that has the best solar exposure towards South-East hosts the semi-public and private programs: workshop, research, classrooms, conference room, administration.

功能與流線
一系列室內外坡道創造了一個覆蓋整個場地的連續慢性系統,實現所有功能區的無障礙設計。場地和建筑出入口的布置為室外空間、室內公共區域及室內私密區域提供了分時管理的可能。
低地部分(2544.50米標高)面朝西北方向的巴米揚大佛而具有最佳視野,布置了接待區、展覽區和演藝中心。高地部分(2555.50米標高)具有來自東南向的最佳自然光照條件而布置了半公共及私密的工作坊、研究中心、教室、會議室和行政辦公。

 
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9 / 16 bird view 鳥瞰


Materials
The centre would be entirely built with local materials: concrete (for load bearing structure) gravel (for the outdoor paving), wood (for the deck that marks the main exhibition route), mud bricks (for the lower walls and the perimetral fence).
The use of exposed concrete confers roughness and monumentality, responding to the strong context and the important social function of the new building.

材料
整個文化中心采用當地材料建造:混凝土(承重結構),碎石(室外鋪地),木材(室內鋪地和主要步道的鋪地)以及生土磚(矮墻及場地圍墻)。
裸露混凝土的粗糙和紀念性回應當地極強的自然與歷史文脈,試圖樹立一個屬于當地的社區生活的新地標。

 
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10 / 16 interior views 內部視角


Sustainability
The centre would work as a self-sustained system, extracting thermal and electric energy from the solar panels on the roof. The water is collected and cleansed in bioswales and stored in underground tanks, providing water for irrigation.

可持續性
由于當地能源基礎設施的短缺,社區中心需要在很大程度上成為一個自給自足的系統:當地每日市政供電六小時外的電力消耗由屋面的太陽能光伏電板提供;雨水在各個屋面和平臺被收集后通過生態調節溝的排與沉淀并最終儲藏在地下蓄水池,以供旱季的灌溉用水需求。

 
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11 / 16 sections 剖面
 
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12 / 16 research workshop 研究工作坊
 
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13 / 16 performance hall 表演大廳
 
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14 / 16 lobby area 大廳


 
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15 / 16 between natural and artificial 自然與人工的對話
 
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16 / 16 framing the view towards the Bhuddas